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This book is a comprehensive guide to the International Phonetic Alphabet, whose aim is to provide a universally agreed system of notation for the sounds of languages, and which has been widely used for over a century. The Handbook presents the basics of phonetic analysis so that the principles underlying the Alphabet can be readily understood, and gives examples of the use of each of the phonetic symbols. The application of the Alphabet is then demonstrated in nearly 30 'Illustrations' - concise analyses of the sound systems of a range of languages, each of them accompanied by a phonetic transcription of a passage of speech. The Handbook also includes the 'Extensions' to the Alphabet, covering speech sounds beyond the sound-systems of languages, and a listing of the internationally agreed computer codings for phonetic symbols. It is an essential reference work for all those involved in the analysis of speech.
The recent rise of Francophone studies within French studies has created the need for a one-volume exploration of the range of expression in the French language following the colonial period. Francophone Post-Colonial Cultures collects discussions of literary texts and cultural identity from Europe, North Africa, the Caribbean, and South Asia--regions of the world that seem to have only the French language in common. Despite enormous differences among all the countries where French is spoken, Francophone literatures tend to deal with a similar spread of issues. This volume positions the study of the Francophone world and its cultures as a comparative project, in which post-colonial Francophone cultures and the specific alterity of these cultures emerge as inextricable from and essential to an understanding of modern France. Organized by region, boasting an international roster of contributors, and including summaries of selected creative and critical works and a guide to selected terms and figures, Francophone Post-Colonial Cultures is an ideal resource for scholars of French literature and advanced students looking to read beyond the French literary canon.
In the rapidly growing field of African literature in French, writing by women has largely been ignored. This book, the first comprehensive study of women's writing in francophone sub-Saharan Africa, redressess the critical imbalance and celebrates the originality of this fascinating new literature.
This text provides a pioneering and comprehensive analysis of over one hundred international organizations. After introducing the broad historical and contextual settings, the book covers the full range of international organizations including those that are often overlooked or get minimal inclusion elsewhere. Each organization is analysed in a stand-alone section that consider its origins, basic mandates and evolution, the governance structure and the associated key players, current activities and future challenges. The descriptions also reflect each organization's broader relationships with other international bodies. Some of the organizations covered include: The United Nations plus its system of semi-autonomous and Specialized Agencies The European Union and other regional organizations The development banks, international financial institutions and other international economic organizations The international scientific, transport, communications and agricultural organizations. This detailed textbook will serve an essential companion volume supplementing core texts on undergraduate modules where international organizations have a prominent role.
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