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Essentials of Bedside Cardiology, Second Edition, like the first edition, is designed for those who wish to balance technological advances with increased personal skill in history taking and physical examination. It is important to teach physicians that all technologies now in use for diagnosing cardiovascular disorders, such as echocardiography, can have false positive and false negative results. It is not always wise to rely on these technologies alone; indeed, they may not even be available in some settings. Even when the full panoply of up-to-date techniques is at the physician's disposal, the patient may not be a good candidate for an echocardiogram, or the technician or reader may not be well qualified, or the equipment itself may be substandard. Technology must be combined with physical examination to decide what is true and what is false. The practice of expert history taking and physical examination returns the physician to the actual patient, where the physician can feel like a "real doctor" rather than a mere interpreter of laboratory data. Essentials of Bedside Cardiology, Second Edition, strives to teach and not simply to tell the facts, relying on three basic methods derived from the psychology of teaching and learning: 1. Explain the facts. 2. Use a question and answer format-the Socratic method. 3. Provide tricks or mnemonics to help the reader remember the facts.
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This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematical and numerical foundations of computational electrocardiology, illustrating the current research developments in this fast-growing field lying at the intersection of mathematical physiology, bioengineering and computational biomedicine. This book is addressed to graduate student and researchers in the field of applied mathematics, scientific computing, bioengineering, electrophysiology and cardiology.
The term " nite Fermi systems" usually refers to systems where the fermionic nature of the constituents is of dominating importance but the nite spatial extent also cannot be ignored. Historically the prominent examples were atoms, molecules, and nuclei. These should be seen in contrast to solid-state systems, where an in nite extent is usually a good approximation. Recently, new and different types of nite Fermi systems have become important, most noticeably metallic clusters, quantum dots, fermion traps, and compact stars. The theoretical description of nite Fermi systems has a long tradition and dev- oped over decades from most simple models to highly elaborate methods of ma- body theory. In fact, nite Fermi systems are the most demanding ground for theory as one often does not have any symmetry to simplify classi cation and as a possibly large but always nite particle number requires to take into account all particles. In spite of the practical complexity, most methods rely on simple and basic schemes which can be well understood in simple test cases. We therefore felt it a timely undertaking to offer a comprehensive view of the underlying theoretical ideas and techniques used for the description of such s- tems across physical disciplines. The book demonstrates how theoretical can be successively re ned from the Fermi gas via external potential and mean- eld m- els to various techniques for dealing with residual interactions, while following the universality of such concepts like shells and magic numbers across the application elds.
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